The main observation equipments of the Solar Dynamics Observatory, which consist of three, are ▲ helioseizmologic and magnetic imager which draws solar magnetic field to a map ▲ 4 telescopes that are known for atmosphere image assembly which take photographs of surface and atmosphere of the Sun ▲ EUV degeneracy tester that measures fluctuation of the solar radiation. The SDO’s image has ten times better quality than 1080p HDTV, four times better resolution comparing results those were from the previous, which analyzed the EUV wavelength of the flare precisely for the first time. SDO is planned to survey the Sun for next 5 years.
The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images the solar atmosphere in multiple wavelengths to link changes in the surface to interior changes. Data includes images of the Sun in 10 wavelengths every 10 seconds. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is designed to provide an unprecedented view of the solar corona, taking images that span at least 1.3 solar diameters in multiple wavelengths nearly simultaneously, at a resolution of about 1 arcsec and at a cadence of 10 seconds or better. The primary goal of the AIA Science Investigation is to use these data, together with data from other SDO instruments and from other observatories, to significantly improve our understanding of the physics behind the activity displayed by the Sun's atmosphere, which drives space weather in the heliosphere and in planetary environments. The AIA will produce data required for quantitative studies of the evolving coronal magnetic field, and the plasma that it holds, both in quiescent phases and during flares and eruptions. The AIA science investigation aims to utilize these data in a comprehensive research program to provide new understanding of the observed processes and, ultimately, to guide development of advanced forecasting tools needed by the user community of the Living With a Star (LWS) program.
HMI is an instrument designed to study oscillations and the magnetic field at the solar surface, or photosphere. HMI is one of three instruments on the Solar Dynamics Observatory; together, the suite of instruments observes the Sun nearly continuously and takes a terabyte of data a day. HMI observes the full solar disk at 6173 Å with a resolution of 1 arcsecond. HMI is a successor to the Michelson Doppler Imager on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. HMI provides four main types of data: dopplergrams (maps of solar surface velocity), continuum filtergrams (broad-wavelength photographs of the solar photosphere), and both line-of-sight and vector magnetograms (maps of the photospheric magnetic field).
The STEREO observes the Sun from two different points. The STEREO orbits around the Sun almost like Earth, hence it’s called twin satellite, the satellite that leads from the front of the Earth is called ‘Ahead’, and the satellite that is following from the behind of the Earth is called ‘Behind’. Through the STEREO, we can get information about the development and the formation of the prominence and corona emission, flare by analyzing the data from the two different points.
EUVI (Extreme UltraViolet Imager)
The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) is part of the SECCHI instrument suite currently being developed for the NASA STEREO mission. As an integral element of the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation(SECCHI), the EUVI plays a critical role in addressing the SECCHI science objectives, in particular:
• Investigate the initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs): How flux systems interact during the CME initiation, the role of reconnection, and coronal dimming
• Investigate the physical evolution of CMEs: Their 3-dimensional structure, how they are accelerated, and the response of the low corona
• Investigate the 3-dimensional structure of Active Regions
The STEREO mission consists of two identically instrumented spacecraft in heliocentric orbits, drifting away from Earth in opposite directions at 22 degrees per year. The two observatories will provide stereoscopic imaging of the sun as their separation angle increases.
COR2 (Outer Coronagraph)
The Cor2 coronagraphs are part of the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) package onboard the twin STEREO spacecraft. The Cor2 detectors each observe a range from 2 to 15 solar radii.
HI (Heliospheric Imager)
The HI is a wide-angle visible-light imaging system for the detection of coronal mass ejection (CME) events in interplanetary space and, in particular, of events directed towards the Earth.
The solar observing satellite SOHO is joint satellite between ESA and NASA that have launched for solar research in december 1995. It was planned to be operate for 2 years mission, but it still is on operation, and gives solar information for the space weather forecast at real time in addion to its original mission. The satellite SOHO is currently located around L1 lagrangian point between the Earth and the Sun, and the solar information is being used for predicting the solar flare, so that it protects the power supply and satellite from the solar flare effect.
LASCO(Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph)
LASCO is able to take images of the solar corona by blocking the light coming directly from the sun with an occulter disk, creating an artificial eclipse within the instrument itself. The position of the solar disk is indicated in the images by the white circle. The most prominent feature of the corona are usually the coronal streamers, those nearly radial bands that can be seen both in C2 and C3.
EIT(Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope)
EIT images the solar atmosphere at several wavelengths and therefore shows solar material at different temperatures. In the images taken at 304 Angstrom the bright material is at 60,000 to 80,000 degrees Kevin. In those taken at 171 Angstrom at 1 million degrees. 195 Angstrom images correspond to about 1.5 million Kelvin, 284 Angstrom to 2million degrees. The hotter the temperature, the higher you look in the solar atmosphere