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Magnetometers

Monitors changes in the geomagnetic field

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  • What is geomagnetic variation?

    There are several reasons for geomagnetic variations. The fundamental source is the secular variation in the Earth’s geomagnetic field that slowly occurs in the Earth’s interior within a long-term cycle. The difference of solar wind pressure between the Earth's day side and night side causes daily variation. Geomagnetic storms are the main cause of rapid changes in the geomagnetic field.

    Geomagnetic variations caused by changes in space weather conditions are classified in the following way. Such geomagnetic variations create an inflow into the Earth of highly energetic charged particles, which normally are blocked by the geomagnetic field. Thus they create considerable damage to society and the economy because they often directly cause malfunctions in satellites, communications and power transmission facilities.

  • Geomagnetic Fluctuation Event by the Space Weather variation

    Event
    Event Classification Features Duration
    Geomagnetic Storm (SSC) Begins with rapid increase in H component (SSC), recovers after the remarkable decrease. One to
    several days
    Sudden Inpulse (SI) Begins with rapid increase in H component (SSC), but no geomagnetic storm occurs. Several
    hours
    Solar Flare Effect (SFE) Geomagnetic fluctuation by solar flare. Several
    minutes
    Bay Increase in magnetic field during midnight. One hour
  • An Example of Various Types of Geomagnetic Change

    SSC Example of each case of geomagnetic variation

    SI Example of each case of geomagnetic variation

    SFE Example of each case of geomagnetic variation

    Bay Example of each case of geomagnetic variation