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  • Satellite Effects of Space Weather
  • Humans in Low earth orbits

Humans in Low earth orbits

  • During Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs), nearly all effects similar to spacecraft are possible, the suit being similar to the satellite and the shielding being smaller (around 0.5mm) (Lemaignen, 1988). In particular, astronauts must pay attention to meteoroids and debris, charging effects and energetic particles (protons from the radiation belts and ions from the cosmic rays or SEPEs) on low-altitude stations (like MIR, ISS). Precautions are normally taken, astronauts being normally in the wake of the vehicle to avoid impacts with debris. However, charging effects can appear especially when astronauts cross the boundary between sunlight and shadow. Particular attention must be paid to SEPEs. When a SEPE is in progress, astronauts cannot leave the station and when a SEPE is beginning, they must come back inside the station, lethal risks being too high.